The time is right. Growing governmental and international awareness has focused attention on the profound impact antiquated brick technology and practices are having on the environment, health and society in developing countries.
Inefficient brick kilns are major industrial black carbon polluters. In developing countries there are over 300,000 brick kilns that emit 890 million tonnes of CO2 each year or 2.4% of global CO2 emissions. This is more than the global aviation industry. As urbanization rapidly increases, the impacts of the brick industry on health, clean air and sustainable living are escalating.
The updated, proven Habla Zig-Zag Kiln technology can meet the challenge of providing a sustainable, environmentally sensitive and economic replacement kiln technology.
High CO2 emissions
High Black Carbon emissions, Black Carbon described as the second greatest contributor to climate change after CO2
The number of brick kiln technologies invented is limited, with the following options available for commercial use;
- Hoffman Kiln invented 1858 in Germany.
- Metal Chimney Bull's Trench Kiln (MCBTK) invented 1876 in England, now widely banned, due to excessive pollution.
- Fixed Chimney Bull's Trench Kiln (FCBTK) is a Bull's Trench Kiln, with a 'Hoffman' style fixed brick chimney, extending approximately 30 metres above the Kiln. Regulators recommend replacement with zig-zag technology, due to kiln inefficiencies.
- Tunnel Kiln invented in 1877 in Germany. Currently used in developed countries, highly automated process, which requires guaranteed power supply. Kiln also requires very high initial cost.
- Habla Zig-Zag Kiln invented 1927 in Germany.
- Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) The original version of a Chinese Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln was adapted from the traditional updraft intermittent kiln in the early 1970's. In 1985 the Chinese government commissioned the Energy Research Institute to improve the design, coming up with the now current design (1990) and it is this latest model, that has been introduced to foreign countries.
Habla Zig-Zag kiln technology offers the following key benefits;
- Consistent international review and research recommends Zig-Zag technology, which is based on the Habla Zig-Zag Kiln Technology.
- Proven technology, known to work successfully and efficiently.
- Ideal for replacement of inefficient brick kilns in developing countries.
- Proven non-mechanized technology, low complexity technology.
- Existing labour force can be used to operate kiln (maintain workforce).
- Low construction costs, economical to replace old kilns, short pay back period.
- Better Outcomes - lower fuel usage means decreased emissions (emissions equal to the tunnel kiln).
- Uniform, saleable product (even cure and even shrinkage).
- Improved working & living conditions for kiln workers and surrounding population.
- There were 150 operational, productive and non-polluting Habla Zig-Zag Kilns in the USA, Germany, England, Europe and Australia. These HZZK's were replaced by automated kilns post war, when labour shortages and costs increased. All current Zig-Zag Kilns in existence are not the proven technology of Habla, however they are” fashioned” from the original Habla Zig-Zag design. No two current copies of the original Habla Zig-Zag are alike, they are inaccurate and incomplete and do not provide the same environmental, social and economic outcomes.
- The design specifications produce a totally consistent kiln which can be replicated at any chosen site, rural or city.
- It has been proven to work in fully commercial, manufacturing settings.
- Uses existing workforce under improved working & living conditions (improving health).
- Proven to reduce emissions.
- Low cost to construct & operate.
- Saves very large proportion of the fuel, highly fuel efficient.
- Non-reliant on electricity, suits developing countries where power sources are often unreliable and/or unavailable.
- Better outcomes - Lower cost, lower emissions, improved working & health conditions, significant fuel savings, better quality product.
- Not a highly complex technology, suitable for developing countries.
- Produces a consistent, quality, saleable product.
- Brick kiln owners and labour will not lose income; funding proposed through our sources addresses the issue of kiln 'shut down' during construction of the kiln replacement.
Yes, the HZZK can be easily adapted to suit village, city or industrial applications (small or large scale production). The HZZK can operate in a continuous or semi continuous mode, depending on output requirements.
The construction phase will be supervised by the Habla Zig-Zag Kiln International team;
- Engineers will be trained in the selected country.
- The initial kiln can become an ongoing training facility, demonstrating best practise.
- Further training facilities would have to be incorporated into volume building of this kiln. This mechanism has been planned.
- Building techniques and construction standards are entirely suitable for the construction requirements of the HZZK.
Size, location and building materials are key factors influencing the cost of each kiln however, the Habla Zig-Zag kiln (along with its additional benefits) is very cost competitive, has lower capital cost and much shorter payback period when compared to other kilns of similar ouptut/size. We would be happy to assist you in your financial evaluations.